J.H. Shim, H.J. Choi, Y. Kim, J. Torgersen, J. An, M.H. Lee, F.B. Prinz, "Process-property Relationship in high-K ALD SrTiO3 and BaTiO3: A Review," JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY C, Volume: 5, Issue: 32, Pages: 8000-8013, DOI: 10.1039/c6tc05158h, AUG 28 2017.
Perovskites exhibit a wide range of remarkable material properties that have the potential to advance various scientific fields. These properties originate in their unique structure and composition. To leverage these properties in the ultrathin film regime, atomic-level control of thickness, composition, and crystal structure will be essential for creating next-generation perovskite devices. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has the potential to enable these design prospects. However, its future use in the field will be dependent on the quality of the link between ALD process parameters and the perovskite phase. In this overview, we present work on barium and strontium titanate (BTO and STO) ultrathin films for high-k applications. We present ALD process strategies developed and optimized to achieve both desired composition and phase, yielding high dielectric constants and low leakage currents at the same time. We discuss thermal annealing, plasma treatment, and the use of seed layers and specialized precursors to improve the properties of BTO and STO by different enhancement mechanisms. In the ultrathin film regime, the understanding of macroscopic material properties will be dependent on the knowledge of the atomic scale arrangement. In conjunction with advances in manufacturing, we therefore also discuss novel strategies and techniques for characterization that will likely be significant in establishing a valid and reliable ALD process parameter-thin film dielectric property relationship.